The basic principle of distance protection involves the division of the voltage at the relaying point by the measured current. The apparent impedance so calculated is compared with the reach point impedance. If the measured impedance is less than the reach point impedance, it is assumed that a fault exists on the line between the relay and the reach point.
The combination of fast fault clearance with selective tripping of plant is a key aim for the protection of power systems. To meet these requirements, highspeed protection systems for transmission and primary distribution circuits that are suitable for use with the automatic reclosure of circuit breakers are under continuous development and are very widely applied.
Distance protection, in its basic form, is a non-unit system of protection offering considerable economic and technical advantages. Unlike phase and neutral overcurrent protection, the key advantage of distance protection is that its fault coverage of the protected circuit is virtually independent of source impedance variations.
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|Credit: General Electric|